There are many famous scientists as well as inventors in the land of America. In the 19th and 20th century, there was fast growth for scientific development. But the foundation for development was laid during this period. The great scientists from the United States worked in many fields of science to make path-breaking inventions and discoveries.
Barbara McClintock, George Washington Carver, Thomas Alva Edison, Benjamin Franklin, and many other brought glory to the United States by making great contributions in this field. In this article we will present short profile of 5 most famous American scientists and some of their most notable achievements.
Benjamin Franklin was born on January 17th, 1706. He mainly worked in the field of physics. Glass harmonica, Franklin Stove, carriage odometer, lighting rod, and bifocal lens are some of his notable inventions. One of his specialties was that he never patented the inventions. Franklin was the first who discovered the principle of ‘conservation of charge.’ Electrical fluid was classified in two categories – resinous and vitreous. Benjamin Franklin claimed that these were not two different types, but rather the same entity under different pressures.
George Washington Carver
George Washington Carver was one of the most famous African-American scientists. Carver taught farmers to make many recipes from peanuts. He also made improvements in the preparation of many items, such as the edible ones. The list of these items is long and includes metal polish, paper, plastic, sidewalk, bleach, buttermilk, chili sauce, fuel briquettes, instant coffee, adhesives, axle grease and many more.
Thomas Alva Edison was not only one of the famous inventors in the United States, but also was a successful businessman. Edison was born on February 11th, 1847, in Milan, Ohio. One of his most notable inventions is the electric bulb. Phonograph and motion picture camera are other Edison’s inventions. His improvements in the incandescent light made the foundation for inventing electric bulb. In 1880, Edison patented a system for distribution of electricity. He earned a lot of money by first patenting the inventions, and then making production systems.
Linus Pauling was basically a chemist. But, Pauling also worked as a peace activist and educator. He is one of the first ones to work in the field of quantum chemistry and molecular biology and is amongst the most important scientists. Along with Marie Curie, Pauling is the only person who won the Nobel Prize in two different fields (Peace and Chemistry). While being at the Oregon State University, he developed interest in the study of quantum mechanics.
Barbara McClintock was a specially distinguished cytogeneticist. In 1983, she won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. One of the most notable works was the technique to visualize the corn chromosomes. McClintock discovered the phenomenon of transposition in the 40’s and 50’s. In this research work, she explained the role of genes in exhibiting the physical characteristics.